Favela centennial shows Brazil communities’ endurance

Across Brazil, 11.4 million people live in low-income neighborhoods the national statistics institute classifies as “subnormal agglomerates,” according to the census, with about 40% of those in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states. That includes not just favelas, but also invasions, grottoes, lowlands, stilted houses and the like, according to the institute. They share histories of irregular occupation and deficient public services.

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